This chapter focused on step 2 that consists mainly of scanning. The chapter started with a brief overview of pings and ping sweeps before moving into the specifics of scanning. The topic of scanning is further broken down into two distinct types including port scanning and vulnerability scanning. The port scanner Nmap was introduced and several different types of scans were discussed. Actual examples and outputs of the various scans were demonstrated as well as the interpretation of the Nmap output. The concept of vulnerability scanning was introduced through the use of Nessus. Practical examples were presented and discussed throughout the chapter.